Is there any way to change how the post and excerpt are displayed?
For instance have the featured image a small thumbnail next to the except. Then have the read more button under it.
Just like the way their post is displayed.
Is there also a way to add a section to the sidebar like their “i need help with…” where it shows the images and you can click on them.
Possible but not without template modification,
How do i modify that part of the template?
You need to find php files used for that page, and modify it
if you want to know which php files were used for that page use this plugin: https://wordpress.org/plugins/what-the-file/
Once i find it do you know what code needs to be changed and what it needs to look like? Is there a way to make it so it displays that way for all posts? or do i have to go in and edit each individual post?
No, you just need to make changes in one file no necessary to make changes in your posts